The greatest events that in the 13th century have changed the history of all Eurasia in the 13th century, having connected among themselves the peoples before that even unaware of each other’s existence, for example, as the Russian people and Chinese, who were subordinate to one emperor, Lord of the World of Genghis Khan and his heirs .
These events, as in any largest historical process, have significant reasons.
The monstrous whirlwind of the Mongolian invasion was prepared in the 11-12th centuries of the fantastic takeoff of China Sun dynasty. 140 million people population. This state has advanced technology at that time, almost a modern financial system.
In the Great Steppe, there was never a state in the modern understanding of this word, because There were no taxes there. All nomad powers were based on interaction with a settled population, on robberies of civilizations or charging with them, i.e. Withdrawal from there the surplus product, which allowed to feed the army of nomads.
If there is no state, then there is no suppression apparatus, but there is a nag-army living at the expense of raids, hiking, conquest, robbery, collecting Dani. In Sun Chinese, it was possible to take gigantic prey. At the same time, the army of the Soon dynasty stood at the same level of development as the army of the peoples living nearby, and wealth were huge.
The Chinese war was not needed. It was some kind of conquering, except for Vietnamese, Koreans, and wild steppes. And it was necessary to spend large means on the equipment and the content of the army, and the prey promised to be minimal. China was a rich economic country and at the same time weak from a military point of view.
Therefore, he represented the basis for the emergence of powerful steppe empires. Barbarians took funds to create military forces in China. The steppe power, who managed to conquer China, was in a state of giant superiority in militarion over the rest of the world.
In the 10th century, the Great Steppe was experiencing not better than the best times, centrifugal processes took place. Peoples, nomadic there, sought to run out on the borders from drought and nonsense. In the 11th century, the steppe overwhelmed again, and the nomads came after the grass.
From the point of view of climatology, the most favorable time has come for the development of nomadic cattle breeding. Then there was a change of ethnic composition of the eastern part of the steppe. Turks, Uygura, Kyrgyz have discarded to the West, and Mongols came to their place from the Amur River.
For several generations, Mongols multiplies, and in the 12th century the steppe becomes the area of development of numerous tribes. The second objective reason for the creation of great nomadic powers appears.
Pure military parameters indicate that in the 13th century, the conditions under which the nomads could win China, and after this, the rest of the world. According to the Chinese tradition, the military was the people of the second grade, the military profession was little honorable. With the huge population of China in 140 million people, the army was only 600 thousand.
This is the number of those who received state missions on the reports. This number included engineering parts, service, intentes, marked, etc. In total, 25 thousand heavy riders of the emperor Guard, as well as about 100-120 thousand infantry were combed.
The number of Mongols by the end of the 12th century was only 800 thousand people, but all the male population was warriors. The Mongola’s Mongolians could put half of men and even more.
Unlike earlier times of Huns and Turks, the Mongols have developed heavy leather-metal lamellar armor, brought to perfection of a heavy cavalry. There was not enough appearance of a person who could combine all the steppe tribes, Chinghis Khan became such a leader.
By the time of the attack on China, the number of Mongolian troops reached 95 thousand, which was comparable to a combat-ready part of the Chinese army. The conquest of the Soon state gave a powerful impulse to further campaigns and the creation of a transcontinental empire.
Such were the main objective causes of Mongolian conquests. Even if there were no Genghis Khan, the story would still be approximately the same channel, at the head of such a grand movement of peoples, another person would certainly stand.
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