Neanderthals are the closest evolutionary ancestors of modern people — could recognize and reproduce speech. This conclusion was the interdisciplinary team of researchers led by Rolf Kvme, an anthropologist from Binghemton University (New York, USA).
«This study is one of the most important in my scientific career,» asserts Kwam. — Its results clearly indicate that Neanderthals could recognize and reproduce speech. Studies of the evolution of a language based on fossils are one of the most complex industries of anthropology. «
Lee, Neanderthals could say, is one of the greatest mysteries of anthropology, linguistics and the theory of evolution.
«For decades, one of the central issues of evolution was whether Homo Sapiens was the only species, comprehended by the language, or, perhaps, other species, in particular Neanderthal,» explains Huang Luis Arsuaga, — Paleontologist of the University of Madrid and the co-warrant of archaeological research in Sierra de Atapuekrka, in Northern Spain. With the help of computer modeling, scientists reconstructed, as Neanderthals heard. This made it possible to draw conclusions about how they communicated.
On the basis of high-resolution CT scanners, scientists have created 3D models of the ears of Neanderthals, as well as their more long-old ancestors from Sierra de Atapuerc. Subsequently, they were processed using a special computer program, which helps to assess hearing in the range of up to 5 kHz, covering the majority of the frequency range of modern human languages.
Scientists calculated their maximum sensitivity frequency range (Occupied Bandwidth). This range is associated with the communication system. What it is wider, the more recognizable acoustic signals can be used in the communication process. This improves communication efficiency, because it allows you to understand a clear message in the shortest length of time.
Studies Kway showed that this frequency in Neanderthals was much more than their ancestors with Sierra de Atapuerc, and much more resembled modern people. «This is a key find,» says Mercedes Konda Valverde, a professor from Spain and the collaborator of the study. — The same auditory capabilities, indicates that the communicative system of Neanderthals was the same integrated and effective as we have. «
«The conclusion from computer analysis indicates that in the language of Neanderthals, most likely there were many consonant sounds,» says Kwam. — Previous studies focused on the ability of Neanderthals to reproduce the vowels of modern English. However, we are convinced that it was an incorrect approach, as consonant sounds allow you to encode more information into vocal signals.
In addition, it is they who distinguish the human language from the methods of communicating other primates. This is a very important indication that has revealed our research. » So, Neanderthals had similar ability to reproduce speech, and their ears, in turn, were configured to hear it.
From archaeological excavations it is known that compared with its ancestors from Sierra de Atapuerc, Neanderthals had more complex behavioral models that included, in particular, the manufacture of more advanced labor tools, the use of fire, and possibly individual symbolic practices. According to evolution theory, it is known that more complex behavior accompanies the formation of a more advanced language.
The team that conducted this study was developed by a methodology for almost two decades. Today, scientists think about how to distribute these methods to other archaeological finds. «We believe that they provided a fairly exhaustive answer to the question about the language abilities of Neanderthals, who is concerned about the scientific community for almost a century,» says Ignacio Martinez, Professor of the University of Alcali in Spain.
In general, final studies of the influence of two types of people are still to be seen in the future. It was believed that two types could not be cross each other. As it turned out, even families could have created. And purely visually, we often see people on our streets of cities that have signs that are classified by Neanderthal. So, not everything is so unequivocally and then we simply do not yet have any kind of data.
So, not everything is simple in our history and science and in the coming years in connection with the development of DNA genealogy, we will learn about yourself and civilization a lot of delicate details. What do you think friends? Write in the comments. Do not forget for like, repost and subscription!